Friday, October 23, 2009

26 / 11 Mumbai Terror Attacks

S.O.S - eVoice For Justice - e-news weekly

Spreading the light of humanity & freedom

Editor: Nagaraj.M.R...vol.5.issue.44....31/10/2009

EDITORIAL : GUNS N' ROSES – international war crimes tribunal

9 / 11 WTC attack , 26 / 11 MUMBAI attack , bomb blasts in Pakistan

Now it is almost a year after 26.11.08 terrorist attacks on Mumbai , sponsored by government of Pakistan. Hereby , we at e-voice pay our deep respects to the martyrs , NSG COMMONDOS , STATE POLICE & OTHERS who sacrificed their own lives , to protect the lives of other civilians , their fellow countrymen , to protect the unity integrity our motherland.

The government of Pakistan is dillydallying to legally prosecute the 26 / 11 terror master minds even after a year. It is a shame to the government of Pakistan. The GOI is showing restraint & persevering to solve this issue diplomatically & to get extradition of terror masterminds , but misunderstood by Pakistan. India is capable of military solution , end losers will be Pakistanis & innocent Pakistani citizens will suffer. Hereby , we call on the government of Pakistan to sow the seeds of peace , harmony in the neighborhood rather than seeds of terror , to look after the economic growth of it’s own country , to look after health care , education of it’s own citizens .

Hereby , e-voice urges the GOI to complete the legal prosecution of terrorist kasab , his local supporters if any as early as possible & to secure the extradition of terror master minds in Pakistan for legal prosecution in India.

India, U.S.A , U.K , Pakistan and various other countries have given birth to & supported various terror outfits, all with the objective of widening their area of influence, to get hold of governance of other countries, to loot resources of other countries. At no time they were bothered about the welfare of innocent people in those victim countries.

Now, when the Frankenstein monster they fathered TERRORISM is haunting them , came home to roost in their own backyards , all these countries are crying foul.

Take for instance Pakistan , it has got enough problems on hand , poverty , unemployment , malnutrition , hunger , illiteracy is rampant in Pakistan. Ordinary Pakistanis are suffering, ordinary Pakistanis does not need neither war nor jihad , what they need is food , healthcare , education for their children.

Take for instance india, it has lot of problems on hand like starvation, lack of education , health care, etc. The GOI says it doesn't have enough funds to solve these problems. These problems are of pre-independece vintage, increasing multifold after independence of india. Still the government of india spent crores of rupees on training , arming of tamil terrorists in srilanka , unnecessarily poked it's nose in east pakistan creating bangladesh, created terrorist outfits in punjab & northeast to counter the influence of other terrorist outfits. ALL THE WHILE PREACHING PANCHASHEEL PRINCIPLES – peaceful co-existance , respect for neighbour's boundaries, etc, in the same breath. What ordinary Indians , commonfolk need is food , shelter , healthcare & education.

Take the case of USA , from the beginning since decades , it is the habbit of US administrators, britishers to sow the seeds of discontent between two countries , make them to go to war with each other ( simultaneously selling military hardware worth billions of dollars to those same countries by the way making profit in billions ) & to finally play the role of a truce maker thereby getting a foothold in the newly formed government plus getting reconstruction projects worth billions of dollars leading to profit of billions. Just remember the US invasion of iraq , citing presence of WMDs, finally nothing was found. However USA made billions of profit by business.

The common folk of whichever country , whichever religion you take , does not want war , everybody wants peace. The common folk need food , shelter , healthcare & education. It is the scheming politicians who go on the path of violence. POOJYA BAPUJI's , MAHATMA GANDHIJI's principles of non violence , non interference in the affairs of other individuals / other countries , love / compassion for fellow human beings is much relevant today.

Hereby, e-Voice urges the international war crimes tribunal , to order the respective governments who aided terrorism ,to pay damages to victim countries. Jai hind. Vande mataram Your's sincerely, Nagaraj.m.r.

Visit following websites to know about the crimes of Indian public servants



CRIMES OF U.S PRESIDENT From the day one the government of u.s.a is selfish & violating the rights of other countrymen. During cold war days , to expand it's influence & to give more business for u.s arms manufacturers , the u.s.a sowed the seeds of terrorism in various countries & nurtured them through arms & finance supply , training. The AL-QUEDA & TALIBAN are it's own babies. The president bush of U.S.A was sufferring from low image ratings , the domestic economy was facing a slump , so to improve his own rating & bring more business to u.s industries , he schemed an inhuman ruthless plan. He wanted to take control of afghanisthan & iraq. He needed a ruse to invade them & concocted one murdering his very own countrymen.

human rights watch has doubted the authenticity of 9/11 in it's articles months ago. it is just a ploy of the bush to divert attention of public from his dipping ratings , domestic problems like unemployment , economic lows and more importantly to find rather fabricate a reason for attacking the arab world , iraq. finally , to help it's MNCs mint millions in reconstuction , oil contracts, etc. it is a savage act of bush for green bucks.


The government of U.S.A thrown all international conventions into wind , lied about weapons of destruction in iraq & invaded a sovereign country iraq. Still , it was unabale to find any weapons of mass destruction in iraq. In it's greed for power , green bucks , it inhumanly tortured prisoners , took them to 3rd countries for torture , bugged phones of u.s citizens & violated human rights of u.s citizens. In his ego , greed mr.bush has violated all human rights of not only u.s citizens but also human rights of innocent iraqis , afghans , etc & thrown all international laws into winds. Now, the president himself has acknowledged the intelligence failure in iraq but defended his iraqi invasion. Mr. Bush will be remebered in the history books as a GREATEST LIAR , INHUMAN SCHEMING MEGALAMONIAC & GREEDY OLDMAN.

AN APPEAL TO THE HONOURABLE CHIEF JUSTICE OF SUPREME COURT OF USA , CHIEF JUSTICE OF INDIA & CHIEF JUSTICE OF PAKISTAN - By American Citizens Our country was known as " Heaven On Earth" , "Land of Equality & Equal Oppurtunity" & the "Statue of Liberty" rightly symbolized the spirit of our country. Now USA is known as a "Terror State". In the last 3 – 4 decades , the persons who occupied the office of President USA ,in their individual capacity took wrong , inhuman decisions , meddled in the internal affairs of other sovereign nations , spent our resources to create terrorist outfits like al-queda , Taliban in those countries. In turn these terrorist outfits terrorized , murdered millions of innocents & this Frankenstein monster came home to roost on September 9 / 11 . After September 9 / 11 , each terror suspect is severely tortured in hell like Abu Garibh prison , elsewhere by our authorities. For argument sake let us accept that these terrorists who murder innocents don't deserve kid glove treatment & rightly deserve 3rd degree torture. When a single terrorist deserve such inhuman 3rd degree torture , what quantum of punishment , torture – previous presidents of USA deserve – who created , aided & abetted thousands of such terrorists , terrorist outfits ? Herby, we appeal to the honourable Supreme Court of USA to order the federal government to to make public : 1. how much US resources were spent from US TREASURY , to finance terrorist outfits , military juntas in other sovereign nations ? 2. is not Al-queda , Taliban creations of USA ? 3. did September 9 / 11 WTC attack truly happened by hijacked airplane or was it planned by US authorities ? see 4 . is racial profiling , profiling a particular community & suspecting all the muslims as terror suspects , right? 5. if it is right , the cretors of such terrorist outfits – past presidents of USA – who were Christians makes it logical to assume whole of our Christian community as terror suspect ? 6. is not use of 3rd degree torture on all type of suspects in US prisons & in the prisons of US allied countries at the behest of US authorities , right ? is it not violation of human rights & US laws ? 7. did US find any weapons of mass destruction in Iraq , which was the main reason for US attacking Iraq ? 8. why not US authorities use scientific interrogation techniques like polygraph , lie detector tests instead of inhuman 3rd degree torture on terror suspects & suspects in other criminal cases ? 9 . what legal right our President of USA have , to illegally spend billions of our dollars on inhuman , llegal acts of terrorism , military coup , creation , aiding & abetting of terrorists , etc , in other sovereign nations ? while we are suffering from loss of jobs ,loss of home due to natural calamities , etc ? Crux , Foundation of all religions is humanity , kindness & universal brotherhood. It is the preachers who misrepresent it. Terrorism created , aided , abetted by anybody is inhuman & wrong . Terrorism is creation of power hungry , selfish people & they must be legally punished . Hereby , we appeal to the honourable court to legally prosecute Previous PRESIDENTS OF USA in the last 4 decades , for crimes of terror , as per the present US anti-terror laws. Recently , in the issue of last week "The Week" , cabinet minister of government of srilanka (previously a deadly terrorist & right hand man of LTTE chief Prabhakaran ) Mr. Karuna , Himself has stated in an interview that LTTE received arms training in Tamilnadu State of India , to wage war against Government of Srilanka. The Justice Jain Commission Of Enquiry , which probed late PM Rajiv Gandhi's assassination case , also stated that Tamil Terrorist outfits in Srilanka Received monetary , financial , arms training support from government of India. GOI has even setup a radio station for tamil terrorists of srilanka , within Indian territory. GOI spent billions of dollars of Indian taxpayer's money for aiding & abetting terrorism , while billions of Indians were half starving & going without a single meal , without proper health care. Recently in the last week , in a media interview the president of Government of Pakistan Mr. Jardari himself has confessed that in the previous years the government of Pakistan has aided & abetted Terrorism for tactical gains of Pakistan , spending billions of dollars of Pakistani taxpayer's money. While ordinary ordinary Pakistanis were suffering from starvation , lack of health care , etc. All the above proves that Previous Presidents of Government of USA , previous Presidents of Government of Pakistan & Previous Prime Ministers of Government of India were the real master minds of TERRORISM , founded , aided , abetted TERRORISM FOR THEIR OWN SELFISH GAINS. In turn murdering lakhs of innocent human beings. These guilty previous presidents & prime ministers are deadly than OSAMA BIN LADEN. Hereby , we appeal to the supreme courts of USA , INDIA , PAKISTAN & INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL , to legally prosecute the previous Prime Ministers of INDIA , the previous presidents of USA & PAKISTAN , on charges of master minding TERRORISM.

2008 Mumbai attacks

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2008 Mumbai Attacks

Locations of the attacks


Mumbai, India


26 November 2008 – 29 November 2008 (IST, UTC +5:30)

Attack type

Bombings, shootings, hostage crisis[1]


173 (164 civilians and security personnel and 9 attackers)[2]



Suspected perpetrator(s)



v d e

Terrorism in Mumbai

199320021st 20032nd 20033rd 20034th 200320062008


v d e

Terrorism in India since 2001

Attacks with 50+ deaths in bold Indian Parliament attackSrinagarAkshardham Temple attack Kolkata 2002Rafiganj rail disasterMumbai 20021st Mumbai 20032nd Mumbai 20033rd Mumbai 2003AyodhyaDelhi 2005Jaunpur 2005VaranasiJama MasjidMumbai 2006MalegaonSamjhauta ExpressMecca MasjidHyderabadUttar PradeshJaipurBangaloreAhmedabad1st Delhi 20082nd Delhi 2008Western IndiaAgartalaImphalAssam 2008Mumbai 20081st Guwahati 20092nd Guwahati 2009

The 2008 Mumbai attacks were more than ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across Mumbai, India's financial capital and its largest city. The attacks, which drew widespread condemnation across the world, began on 26 November 2008 and lasted until 29 November, killing at least 173 people and wounding at least 308.[2][5]

Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai: at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, the Oberoi Trident,[6] the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower,[6] Leopold Cafe,[6] Cama Hospital,[6] the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House,[7] the Metro Cinema,[8] and a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College.[6] There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle.[9] By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Mahal Palace had been secured by Mumbai Police and security forces. An action by India's National Security Guards (NSG) on 29 November resulted in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Mahal Palace, ending all fighting in the attacks.[10]

Mohammad Ajmal Amir,[11] the only attacker who was captured alive, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Pakistan-based militant organization, considered a terrorist organization by India, the United States, and the United Kingdom, among others.[12] The Indian Government said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan.[13]

On 7 January 2009, after more than a month of denying the nationality of the attackers,[14] Pakistan's Information Minister Sherry Rehman officially accepted Ajmal Amir's nationality as Pakistani.[15] On 12 February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik, in a televised news briefing, confirmed that parts of the attack had been planned in Pakistan and said that six people, including the alleged mastermind, were being held in connection with the attacks.[16]



[edit] Background

Main article: Terrorism in Mumbai

One of the bomb-damaged coaches at the Mahim station in Mumbai during the 11 July 2006 train bombings

There have been many terrorist bombings in Mumbai since 13 co-ordinated bomb explosions killed 257 people and injured 700 on 12 March 1993.[17] The 1993 attacks are believed to be retaliation for the Babri Mosque demolition.[18]

On 6 December 2002, a blast in a BEST bus near Ghatkopar station killed two people and injured 28.[19] The bombing occurred on the tenth anniversary of the demolition of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya.[20] A bicycle bomb exploded near the Vile Parle station in Mumbai, killing one person and injuring 25 on 27 January 2003, a day before the visit of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee of India to the city.[21] On 13 March 2003, a day after the tenth anniversary of the 1993 Bombay bombings, a bomb exploded in a train compartment near the Mulund station, killing 10 people and injuring 70.[22] On 28 July 2003, a blast in a BEST bus in Ghatkopar killed 4 people and injured 32.[23] On 25 August 2003 two bombs exploded in South Mumbai, one near the Gateway of India and the other at Zaveri Bazaar in Kalbadevi. At least 44 people were killed and 150 injured.[24] On 11 July 2006, seven bombs exploded within 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai.[25] 209 people were killed,[26] and over 700 injured.[27] According to Mumbai Police, the bombings were carried out by Lashkar-e-Taiba and Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI).[28][29]

[edit] Attacks

Main article: Timeline of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

[edit] Entry into India

According to investigations the attackers traveled by sea from Karachi, Pakistan across the Arabian Sea, hijacked the Indian fishing trawler 'Kuber', killing the crew, and then entered Mumbai on a rubber dinghy. The captain of 'Kuber', Amar Singh Solanki, had earlier been imprisoned for six months in a Pakistani jail for illegally fishing in Pakistani waters.[30]

The first events were detailed around 20:00 Indian Standard Time (IST) on 26 November, when 10 Urdu-speaking men in inflatable speedboats came ashore at two locations in Colaba. They reportedly told local Marathi-speaking fishermen to "mind their business" before they split up and headed two different ways. The fishermen's subsequent report to police received little response.[31]

[edit] Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

Bullet marks on the wall of the suburban terminus at CST

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST) was attacked by two gunmen, one of whom, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire,[32] using AK-47 rifles.[33] The attackers killed 52 people and injured 109 others,[33] their assault ending at about 22:45.[32]

[edit] Leopold Cafe

The Leopold Cafe, a popular restaurant and bar on Colaba Causeway in South Mumbai, was one of the first sites to be attacked.[34] Two attackers opened fired on the cafe on 26 November night, killing at least 10 people (including some foreigners), and injuring many more.[35]

Bullet marks left at Leopold Cafe

[edit] Bomb blasts in taxis

There were two explosions in taxis caused by timer bombs. The first one occurred at 22:40 at Vile Parle, killing the driver and a passenger. The second explosion took place at Wadi Bunder between 22:20 and 22:25. Three people including the driver of the taxi were killed, and about 15 other people were injured.[9][36]

[edit] Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Trident

Main articles: Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and Oberoi Trident

The damaged Oberoi Trident hotel

Two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower and the Oberoi Trident, were amongst the four locations targeted. Six explosions were reported at the Taj hotel and one at the Oberoi Trident.[37][38]

CNN initially reported on the morning of the 27 November 2008 that the hostage situation at the Taj had been resolved and quoted the police chief of Maharashtra stating that all hostages were freed;[39] however, it was learned later that day that there were still two attackers holding hostages, including foreigners, in the Taj Mahal hotel.[40][40]

The Wasabi restaurant on the first floor of the Taj Hotel was completely gutted.

During the attacks, both hotels were surrounded by Rapid Action Force personnel and Marine Commandos (MARCOS) and National Security Guards (NSG) commandos.[41][42] When reports emerged that attackers were receiving television broadcasts, feeds to the hotels were blocked.[43] All attackers were out of the Taj Mahal and Oberoi hotels by the early morning of November 29.[44][45]

A number of European Parliament Committee on International Trade delegates were staying in the Taj Mahal hotel when it was attacked,[46] but none of them were injured.[47] British Conservative Member of the European Parliament (MEP) Sajjad Karim (who was in the lobby when attackers initially opened fire there) and German Social Democrat MEP Erika Mann were hiding in different parts of the building.[48] Also reported present was Spanish MEP Ignasi Guardans, who was barricaded in a hotel room.[49] Another British Conservative MEP, Syed Kamall, reported that he along with several other MEPs left the hotel and went to a nearby restaurant shortly before the attack.[48] Kamall also reported that Polish MEP Jan Masiel was thought to have been sleeping in his hotel room when the attacks started, but eventually left the hotel safely.[50] Kamall and Guardans reported that a Hungarian MEP's assistant was shot.[48][51] Also caught up in the shooting were the President of Madrid, Esperanza Aguirre, while checking in at the Oberoi Trident,[51] and Indian MP N. N. Krishnadas of Kerala and Sir Gulam Noon while having dinner at a restaurant in the Taj hotel.[52][53]

[edit] Nariman House

Main article: Nariman House

Front view of the Nariman House a week after the attacks

Nariman House, a Chabad Lubavitch Jewish center in Colaba known as the Mumbai Chabad House, was taken over by two attackers and several residents were held hostage.[54] The house was stormed by NSG commandos and, after a long battle, one NSG commando and the two attackers were killed.[55] Rabbi Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivkah Holtzberg, who was six months pregnant, were murdered with other hostages inside the house by the attackers.[56] Indian forces found the bodies of six hostages inside the house.

[edit] End of the attacks

By the morning of 27 November, the army had secured the Jewish outreach center at Nariman House as well as the Oberoi Trident hotel. They also incorrectly believed that the Taj Mahal Palace and Towers had been cleared of attackers, and soldiers were leading hostages and holed-up guests to safety, and removing bodies of those killed in the attacks.[57][58][59] However, later news reports indicated that there were still two or three attackers in the Taj, with explosions heard and gunfire exchanged.[59] Fires were also reported at the ground floor of the Taj with plumes of smoke arising from the first floor.[59] The final operation at the Taj Mahal Palace hotel was completed by the NSG commandos at 08:00 on 29 November, killing three attackers and resulting in the conclusion of the attacks.[60] The security forces rescued 250 people from the Oberoi, 300 from the Taj and 60 people (members of 12 different families) from Nariman House.[61] In addition, police seized a boat filled with arms and explosives anchored at Mazgaon dock off Mumbai harbour.[62]

[edit] Methodology

The attackers had planned the attack several months ahead of time and knew some areas well enough for the attackers to vanish, and reappear after security forces had left. Several sources have quoted Kasab telling the police that the group received help from Mumbai residents.[63][64] The attackers used at least three SIM cards purchased on the Indian side of the border with Bangladesh, pointing to some local collusion.[65] There were also reports of one SIM card purchased in New Jersey, USA.[66] Police had also mentioned that Faheem Ansari, an Indian Lashkar operative who had been arrested in February 2008, had scouted the Mumbai targets for the November attacks.[67] Later, the police arrested two Indian suspects, Mikhtar Ahmad, who is from Srinagar in Kashmir, and Tausif Rehman, a resident of Kolkata. They supplied the SIM cards, one in Calcutta, and the other in New Delhi.[68]

Type 86 Granades made by China's state-owned Norinco were used in the attacks. [2]

Blood tests on the attackers indicate that they had taken cocaine and LSD during the attacks, to sustain their energy and stay awake for 50 hours. Police say that they found syringes on the scenes of the attacks. There were also indications that they had been taking steroids.[69] The gunman who survived said that the attackers had used Google Earth to familiarise themselves with the locations of buildings used in the attacks.[70]

[edit] Attribution

Main article: Attribution of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

See also: Erroneous reporting on the 2008 Mumbai attacks

Ajmal Kasab, the only attacker caught alive, at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The Mumbai attacks were planned and directed by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants inside Pakistan, and carried out by ten young armed men trained and sent to Mumbai and directed from inside Pakistan via mobile phones and VoIP.[12][71][72]

Pakistan initially contested this attribution, but agreed this was the case on 7 January 2009.[14][73][74] The Indian government supplied evidence to Pakistan's high commission in Delhi, in the form of interrogations, weapons, and call records of conversations during the attacks.[75] The evidence, shown to friendly governments and media, provided a detailed sequence of training, supplying, and constant communications of attackers with handlers from Pakistan.[3] In addition, Indian government officials said that the attacks were so sophisticated that they must have had official backing from Pakistani "agencies", an accusation denied by Pakistan.[72][73]

In February 2009, Pakistani newspaper The Dawn, citing Pakistani investigators, claimed that the attacks were planned in Bangladesh and refined in India with significant support being provided by Indian based militant groups and criminal organisations.[76] However, Indian investigators refuted this claim, with the Home Minister Palaniappan Chidambaram dismissing the claim as "rubbish".[77] On 12 February 2009, Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik agreed that some part of the conspiracy did take place in Pakistan. Malik said that Pakistan had lodged a First Information Report (FIR) under Anti-Terrorism Act against three persons.[78]

Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi said on 15 February 2009 that the 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings and the Mumbai attacks were linked, and that Pakistan needed information from India to continue its investigation.[79]

The criminal investigation begun by the Mumbai police has identified 37 suspects – including two army officers – wanted for their alleged involvement in the plot. All but two of the suspects, many of whom are identified only through aliases, are Pakistani.[80]

In July 2009 Pakistani authorities confirmed to their Indian counterparts that their investigations confirmed that LeT plotted and financed the attacks. Investigations conducted in LeT camps in Karachi and Thatta revealed diaries, training manuals, maps of India and operational instructions. According to a report from Pakistani investigators to Indian authorities, "the investigation has established beyond any reasonable doubt that the defunct LeT activists conspired, abetted, planned, financed and established [the] communication network to carry out terror attacks in Mumbai."[81]

[edit] Attackers

Police looking for attackers outside Colaba

There were ten gunmen, nine of whom were subsequently shot dead and one captured by security forces.[82][83] Witnesses reported that they looked to be in their early twenties, wore black t-shirts and jeans, and that they smiled and looked happy as they shot their victims.[84]

It was initially reported that some of the attackers were British citizens,[85][86] but the Indian Government later stated that there was no evidence to confirm this.[87] Similarly, early reports of twelve gunmen[88] were also later shown to be incorrect.[3]

On 9 December, the ten attackers were identified by Mumbai police, along with their home towns in Pakistan: Ajmal Amir from Faridkot, Abu Ismail Dera Ismail Khan from Dera Ismail Khan, Hafiz Arshad and Babr Imran from Multan, Javed from Okara, Shoaib from Narowal, Nazih and Nasr from Faisalabad, Abdul Rahman from Arifwalla, and Fahad Ullah from Dipalpur Taluka. Dera Ismail Khan is in the North-West Frontier Province; the rest of the towns are in Pakistani Punjab.[89]

[edit] Arrests

Main article: Ajmal Kasab

Ajmal Kasab was the only attacker captured alive by police and is currently under arrest.[90] Much of the information about the attackers' preparation, travel, and movements comes from his confessions to the Mumbai police.[91]

On 12 February 2009 Pakistan's Interior Minister Rehman Malik said that Pakistani national Javed Iqbal, who acquired VoIP phones in Spain for the Mumbai attackers, and Hamad Ameen Sadiq, who had facilitated money transfer for the attack, had been arrested.[78] Two other men known as Khan and Riaz, but whose full names were not given, were also arrested.[92]

[edit] Casualties and compensation

Main article: Casualties of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

At least 164 victims (civilians and security personnel) and 9 attackers were killed in the attacks. Among the dead were 28 foreign nationals from 10 countries.[2][39][93][94][95] One attacker was captured.[96] The bodies of many of the dead hostages showed signs of torture or disfigurement.[97] A number of those killed were notable figures in business, media, and security services.[98][99][100]

The Government of Maharashtra announced about $10,000 as compensation to the kin of each of those killed in the terror attacks and about $1,000 to the seriously injured.[101] In August 2009, Indian Hotels Company and the Oberoi Group received about $28 million as part-payment of the insurance claims, on account of the attacks on Taj Mahal and Trident, from General Insurance Corporation of India.[102]

[edit] Aftermath

Main article: Aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

Flowers at the spot of Hemant Karkare's death

The attacks had multiple, far-ranging effects. The impact was felt on Mumbai and on Maharashtra state, and throughout urban India. The Maharashtra state government has planned to buy 36 speed boats to patrol the coastal areas and several helicopters for the same purpose. It will also create an anti-terror force called "Force One" and upgrade all the weapons that Mumbai police currently have.[103] Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh on an all party conference declared that legal framework will be strengthened in the battle against terrorism and a federal anti-terrorist intelligence and investigation agency, like the FBI, will be set up soon to co-ordinate actions against terrorism.[104] Govt. strengthened Anti terror laws by UAPA 2008, and federal National Investigating Agency was formed.

The attacks have damaged India's already strained relationship with Pakistan. External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee declared that India may indulge in military strikes against terror camps in Pakistan to protect its territorial integrity. There were also after-effects on the United States's relationships with both countries,[105] the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan,[106] and on the Global War on Terror.[107] According to Interpol secretary general Ronald Noble, Indian intelligence agencies did not share any information with them.[108] However, FBI chief Robert Mueller praised the "unprecedented cooperation" between American and Indian intelligence agencies over Mumbai terror attack probe.[109]

[edit] Reactions

Main article: Reactions to the 2008 Mumbai attacks

Protests at the Gateway of India in Mumbai

Indians criticised their political leaders after the attacks, saying that their ineptness was partly responsible. The Times of India commented on its front page that "Our politicians fiddle as innocents die."[110] Political reactions in Mumbai and India included a range of resignations and political changes, including the resignations of Minister for Home Affairs, Shivraj Patil,[111] Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Vilasrao Deshmukh,[112] and Deputy Chief Minister of Maharastra R. R. Patil.[113] In addition, there was condemnation of the attacks by Indian Muslim organizations and personalities and Naxalite insurgentsSource?. Prominent Muslim personalities such as Bollywood actor Aamir Khan appealed to the community members in the country to observe Eid al-Adha as a day of mourning on 9 December 2008.[114] The business establishment also reacted, with changes to transport, and requests for an increase in self-defense capabilities.[115] The attacks also triggered a chain of citizens' movements across India such as the India Today Group's "War Against Terror" campaign. There were vigils held across all of India with candles and placards commemorating the victims of the attacks.[116] The NSG commandos based in Delhi also met criticism for taking 10 hours to reach the terrorists.[117][118]

International reaction for the attacks was widespread, with many countries and international organizations condemning the attacks and expressing their condolences to the civilian victims. Many important personalities around the world also condemned the attacks.[119] Outgoing US President George W. Bush said "We pledge the full support of the United States as India investigates these attacks, brings the guilty to justice and sustains its democratic way of life."[120] Likewise, a spokesman for then President-elect Barack Obama said that Mr. Obama “strongly condemns today’s terrorist attacks in Mumbai, and his thoughts and prayers are with the victims, their families, and the people of India.“[121]

Media coverage highlighted the use of new media and Internet social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr, in spreading information about the attacks. In addition, many Indian bloggers and Wikipedia offered live textual coverage of the attacks.[122] A map of the attacks was set up by a web journalist using Google Maps.[123][124] The New York Times, in July 2009, described the event as "what may be the most well-documented terrorist attack anywhere."[125]

[edit] Kasab's trial

Kasab's trial began on 6 May 2009. He initially pleaded not guilty, but later admitted his guilt on 20 July 2009. The court had accepted his plea, but due to the lack of completeness within his admittance, the judge had deemed that many of the 86 charges were not addressed and therefore the trial will continue. Kasab could, and will almost certainly, be hanged if given the maximum penalty of death.[126]

[edit] Trials in Pakistan

Indian and Pakistani police have exchanged DNA evidence, photographs and items found with the attackers to piece together a detailed portrait of the Mumbai plot. Police in Pakistan have arrested seven people, including Hammad Amin Sadiq, a homeopathic pharmacist, who arranged bank accounts and secured supplies, and he and six others begin their formal trial on 3 Oct 2009 in Pakistan, though Indian authorities say the prosecution stops well short of top Lashkar leaders.[127]

[edit] Locations

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All the incidents except the explosion at Vile Parle took place in downtown South Mumbai.

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